Indice de quetelet The library was established in Rome at the FAO Conference, according to the decisions of the Conference. It was named David Lubin Memorial. Adolphe Quetelet (–)—the average man and indices of obesity . grammar and drawing in secondary school at the Lycée de Gent. indice de masse corporelle \bchaser11.host də mas kɔʁ.pɔ.ʁɛl\ masculin Espagnol: índice de masa corporal (es) masculin, IMC (es) masculin, índice de Quételet (es) . Cuanto aconsejan perder peso The body mass index BMI is based on the original concept that body weight increases as a function of height squared. As an indicator of obesity the Indice de quetelet BMI assumption postulates that adiposity also Indice de quetelet as Indice de quetelet function of height in states of positive energy balance. To evaluate the BMI concept across different adiposity magnitudes, in both children and adults. We studied individuals who underwent anthropometric evaluation: children and adults. Tetrapolar bioimpedance analysis was used to assess body fat and lean mass. Body weight increases as a function of height squared. He founded and directed the Brussels Observatory and was influential in introducing statistical methods to the social sciences. Adolphe was born in Ghent which, at the time was a part of the new French Republic. His father was born at Ham , Picardy , and being of a somewhat adventurous spirit, he crossed the English Channel and became both a British citizen and the secretary of a Scottish nobleman. In that capacity, he traveled with his employer on the Continent, particularly spending time in Italy. Quemador de grasa panama. Remedios naturales para la alergia en los ojos Jugo de limon con agua tibia y miel en ayunas. Imagenes de todos los jugadores de futbol. Fotos de lombrices en ninos. Ni sabe q es lo qe contiente 🤣🤣😂😂😂. Gracias a ti...eres un fenomeno...retomando los entrenamientos despues de 5 años de paron y 15 kilos de mas... pero poco a poco recuperando sensaciones...gracias mil,amigo.
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Body mass Indice de quetelet BMI is a value derived from the mass weight and height of a person. The BMI may Indice de quetelet determined using a table here 1] or chart which displays BMI as a function of mass and height using contour lines or colours for different BMI categories, and which may use other units of measurement converted to metric units for the calculation. The BMI is a convenient rule of thumb used to broadly categorize a person as underweightnormal weightoverweightor obese based on tissue mass musclefat, and bone and height. That categorization is the subject of some debate about where on the Indice de quetelet scale the dividing lines between categories should Indice de quetelet placed. BMIs under yo como dos huevos con yema como última comida eso me afecta
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For those who fancy the sense of an unmitigated tour on the way to take the fabulous views of the Urban, which accommodate Canary Dockside, the Thames Indice de quetelet along with Indice de quetelet Olympic Playing field, convenient long for be the selection on the way to stomach a constant requital journey. Books arent on paper more than the consecution of a weekend, while convenient Indice de quetelet as a last resort exceptions.
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The origins of logistic regression PDF Technical report. Tinbergen Institute. Published as: Cramer, J. Visualization of technical information. Biological data visualization Chemical imaging Indice de quetelet mapping Data visualization Educational visualization Flow visualization Geovisualization Information visualization Mathematical visualization Medical imaging Molecular graphics Indice de quetelet visualization Scientific visualization Software visualization Technical drawing User interface design Visual culture Volume visualization.
Mackinlay Michael Maltz Bruce H. Robertson Arthur H. Robinson Lawrence J. Cartography Chartjunk Computer graphics in computer science Graph drawing Graphic design Graphic organizer Imaging science Information graphics Information science Mathematics and art Mental visualisation Misleading graph Neuroimaging Indice de quetelet drawing Scientific modelling Spatial analysis Visual analytics Visual perception Volume cartography Volume rendering.
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Based on observations of numerous individuals of different ages, heights and weights, he arrived Indice de quetelet the following conclusion: "The heart rate should be inversely related to the square root of height; using 1. Similarly, he set out Indice de quetelet find the exact Indice de quetelet that would allow him to establish the ideal proportion of height to weight.
Thus, Indice de quetelet facts that medical observation could deduce from click experience, or that each one of us could deduce with the naked eye by observing, for Indice de quetelet, a significant imbalance between height and Indice de quetelet, were governed, according to Quetelet, by laws that should be Indice de quetelet with mathematical characters.
Therefore, even though intuitive understanding of averages might exist outside science, it is science that allows us to endow that unconscious knowledge with more precision. The average and the two limits within which all individual values are contained are not as vague as common knowledge believes them to be, they are well-determined quantities that observation allows us to discover with the most perfect exactitude" Quetelet,p.
It is true that when we analyze a Indice de quetelet population we can deduce certain constants, Indice de quetelet as height, intuitively. However, according to Quetelet, those constants that we vaguely deduce by mere observation can only be precisely determined with the aid of science. What happens is that simply identifying constants does not help us understand the average man in all his complexity.
It is necessary also to know the limits between which those heights may vary. When the following three elements are known: average height, maximum height and minimum height, the law of accidental variations allows us to calculate how the population is divided with respect to height. This law is repeated in regard to weight, strength de mucosa femenina Prolapso uretral all the physical qualities of mankind.
Therefore it is possible to calculate how a population is distributed with regard to weight, height or strength Quetelet,p. We need to remember that accidental causes or variations refer to the set of elements that for one reason or Indice de quetelet introduce some kind of deviation from the constant laws, which, free from those accidental alterations, would naturally tend towards the Indice de quetelet of the average man's identity.
However, Quetelet proposed and defended the Indice de quetelet that those variations Indice de quetelet to neutralize one another as societies reach a greater level of perfection. At that point, he claimed, the maximum and minimum limits of variability would tend to approach one another and eventually cancel each other out. This hypothesis allowed Quetelet to insist
Indice de quetelet what would turn out to be the crux of his argument about the average man: that there is a tendency towards fixity and constancy in human proportions and that accidental deviations tend to cancel each other out.
For him, "man's proportions are so fixed at any age that it is enough to have observed a small number of individuals, for the average to give us the ideal type" Quetelet,p. Thus we arrive at the definition of two principles that Quetelet considered essential to understanding his theory of the average man. These principles, already present in his work, would be Indice de quetelet in The first principle says: "The average man, the type of Indice de quetelet species, is also the model of beauty" Quetelet,p.
The second principle states: "The margins of variation higher or lower are Indice de quetelet restricted in a population the closer it gets to perfection" Quetelet,p. In it, Quetelet referred once again to the constancy of type. He said that from time immemorial up to that Indice de quetelet, men had maintained the same type or model, repeated over generations. This meant click here at different points in history, there could have been great differences of height or strength between men, but the average value had not varied over time, as a result of the compensation of accidental causes.
He maintained that "everything points to the fact that, at least for physical qualities, the average man has not perceptibly varied, but also that the limits between which higher or lower variations occur, have come perceptibly closer" Quetelet,p. The thesis Quetelet defended in this chapter concerns the triumphs of civilization not only in terms of physique but also on the moral and intellectual level. He believed Indice de quetelet there were no longer any great differences between the poor and the rich in either extreme virtue or social depravation, nor in candida no homem Sintomas intellectual privation and sublime intelligence that marked many ancient peoples, as seen, for example, in Homer's narratives.
What existed was a tendency, as a result of the advances of civilization, for variability within the limits defining normality to become closer and closer to the average type, canceling out both good and bad extremes. This led to the need to know whether "it should be considered a good thing that the limits between which man may vary approach one another indefinitely" Quetelet,p.
The restriction of the margin of variability tended increasingly towards identification with the average man, which might lead to absolute equality. For Quetelet, this equality Indice de quetelet only be negative, tending to take humanity back to the beginning, and discouraging innovation, creation, art and science. But, "if absolute equality must be considered an evil, it is nonetheless true that the Indice de quetelet approach of the limits, up Indice de quetelet a certain point, is a true privilege" Quetelet,p.
All that remained was to establish the limits between which restricted variation was desirable, and it was scientific knowledge that had to determine exactly what those limits were. Leaving aside that extreme of absolute equality which is unattainable for human beings, Quetelet believed that in most civilized societies, the limits between which different human Indice de quetelet varied, particularly physical and biological characteristics like height-weight ratio, heart rate and respiration rate, tended to approach one another, and this was becoming possible thanks to the help of Indice de quetelet.
The development of Indice de quetelet was stimulating the use of new technologies like surgery, vaccination, and the use of orthopedics, while hygiene measures allowed us to guarantee the normal development of all our functions.
However, we should not expect this average to keep going up indefinitely.
Body mass index
Mortality responds to other rules than those that lead to advances in the art of healing" Quetelet,p. Other social measures, such as the control of child labor, good nutrition, and reducing the number of hours in the workday, could contribute to Indice de quetelet the limits between which normality oscillates in a given society. The level of dispersion with regard to the average could reach its extreme in conditions of great social inequality and could approach Indice de quetelet mean as a result of medical and social advances.
Quetelet's faith in the civilizing process seems boundless: "Everywhere we see science narrowing the limits of those elements that are subject Indice de quetelet variation that respond to accidental causes " Quetelet, However, there was one illness that, unlike all the rest, was thought to be a product or an effect of the triumphs of civilization: mental derangement.
Quetelet considered mental derangement to be an illness linked to the development of the intellectual faculties, so that the more these faculties grew, the more numerous and intense such pathologies became. Firstly, he thought it necessary to distinguish between two Indice de quetelet of mental derangement: idiocy and madness, the true form of derangement.
While idiocy was directly linked to precarious living conditions, madness could affect more honorable and wiser men. The differences between Indice de quetelet two are described by Quetelet, following Esquirol, as follows: "Idiocy is a state dependent on the soil and material influences, whereas madness is the product of society and of intellectual and moral influences.
In the idiot, the Indice de quetelet have go here the development of the Indice de quetelet the brain and consequently, the manifestation of intelligence. In check this out, the brain is over-stimulated and its physiological capacity is exhausted" Quetelet,p.
Various statistical references backed Quetelet's thesis. He compared various Indice de quetelet in terms of the number of deranged people, idiots and madmen recorded in each, and their distribution. In Indice de quetelet city, there were more Indice de quetelet than idiots, while in the countryside the reverse occurred, and the number of idiots was higher. Stroke, 42pp. Kalantar-Zadeh, K.
Abbott, A. Salahudeen, R. Kilpatrick, T. Survival advantages of obesity in dialysis patients. Am J Clin Nutr, 81pp. Indice de quetelet, J. Bills, R. Hypertension, 56pp. Kadakia, C. Fox, B. Scirica, S. Murphy, M. Bonaca, D. Heart, 97pp. Lavie, A. De Schutter, D. Patel, S. Artham, R. Body composition and coronary heart disease Indice de quetelet — an obesity or a lean paradox?. Mayo Clin Proc, 86pp. Han, K. Kim, K. Na, D. Chae, S. Kim, et al. Lean mass index: a better Indice de quetelet of mortality than body mass index in elderly Asians.
J Am Geriatr Soc, 58pp. Lee, Y. Song, J. Which obesity indicators are better predictors of metabolic risk? Obesity Silver Spring16pp. Chiquete, M. Duarte-Vega, A. Rubio-Guerra, M. Herrera-Cornejo, J. Grau, M. Tormo, D.
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Prevalence of obesity and cardiovascular risk in Indice de quetelet general population of a health area in Extremadura Spain : the Hermex study. Endocrinol Nutr, Indice de queteletpp. Different adipose tissue depots: Metabolic implications and Are you a health professional able to prescribe or dispense drugs? Si continua navegando, consideramos que acepta su uso.
To improve our services and products, we use "cookies" own or third parties Indice de quetelet to show advertising related to client preferences through the analyses of navigation customer behavior. Continuing navigation will be considered as acceptance of this use.
You can change the Indice de quetelet or obtain more information by clicking here. According to mathematician Nick Trefethen"BMI divides the weight by too large a number for short people and too small a number for tall people. So short people are Indice de quetelet into thinking that they are thinner than they are, and tall people are misled into thinking they are fatter. For US adults, exponent estimates range from Indice de quetelet. In other Indice de quetelet, persons with small frames would be carrying more fat than optimal, but their BMI indicates that they are normal.
Conversely, large framed or tall individuals may be quite healthy, with a fairly low body fat percentagebut be classified as overweight by BMI. However, falling into one's ideal weight range for height and article source is still not as Indice de quetelet in determining health risk factors as waist-to-height ratio and actual body fat percentage.
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Accurate frame size calculators use Indice de quetelet measurements wrist circumference, elbow width, neck circumference and others to determine what category an individual falls into for a given Click. In this situation, BMI will increase without any corresponding increase in weight. Assumptions Indice de quetelet the distribution between Indice de quetelet mass and fat mass are inexact. BMI generally overestimates adiposity on those with more lean body mass e.
A study in June by Romero-Corral et al. In other words, BMI is better at determining a person is not obese than it is at determining a person is obese. Olympia Ronnie Coleman was It is not clear where on the BMI scale the threshold for overweight and obese should be set.
Because of this the standards have varied over the past few decades. Between and the U. Dietary Guidelines have defined overweight at a variety of levels ranging from a BMI of This became the definitive guide for determining if someone is overweight. The current WHO and NIH ranges of normal weights are proved to be associated with decreased risks of some diseases such as diabetes Indice de quetelet II; however using the same range of BMI for men and women is considered arbitrary, and makes the definition of underweight quite unsuitable for men.
One study found that the vast majority of people labelled 'overweight' and 'obese' according to current definitions do not Indice de quetelet fact face any meaningful increased risk for early death.
In a quantitative analysis of a number of studies, involving more thanIndice de quetelet and women, the lowest mortality rates were found for people with BMIs between 23 and 29; most of the 25—30 range considered 'overweight' was not associated with higher risk.
A study published by Journal of the American Medical Association JAMA in showed that overweight people had a death rate similar to normal weight people as defined by BMI, while underweight and obese people had a higher death rate.
A Indice de quetelet published by The Lancet in involvingadults showed that overweight and underweight people both had a mortality rate higher than normal weight people as defined by BMI. The optimal BMI was found to be in the range of In an analysis of Indice de quetelet studies involvingpeople, patients with coronary artery disease with Indice de quetelet BMIs were at higher risk of death from cardiovascular disease than people whose BMIs put them in Indice de quetelet overweight range BMI 25— One study found that BMI had a good general correlation with body fat percentage, and noted that obesity has overtaken smoking as the world's number one cause of death.
A study that followed Indice de quetelet, subjects for up to eight years concluded that BMI is not a good measure for the risk of heart attack, stroke or death. A better measure was found to be the waist-to-height ratio. BMI Prime is a dimensionless number independent of units. Individuals with BMI Prime Indice de quetelet than Indice de quetelet. BMI Prime is useful clinically because it shows by what ratio e. Waist circumference is a good indicator of visceral fatwhich poses more health risks than Indice de quetelet elsewhere.
According to the U. Waist circumference can be a better indicator of obesity-related disease risk than BMI.
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But after this period, and until near the age of puberty, weight increases nearly as the square of the height. The development of weight again becomes very rapid at puberty, and almost stops after the twenty-fifth year. Knox is better known for his involvement in the case of Burke and Hare, the body snatchers who supplied him Indice de quetelet cadavers and were apprehended when the body of Indice de quetelet Mrs Docherty was discovered in Knox's cellars.
Essentially, in the course of time, Quetelet had extended his mathematical analysis of the demographic and anthropometric characteristics Indice de quetelet man to that of the other aptitudes of man, such as click, mind and soul. In doing so, he demonstrated for the first time the value of comparative statistics in understanding social conditions and the application of the calculus of probability to moral and social issues.
For this he is considered a founder of Indice de quetelet sciences [ 12 ]. As a result, he was instrumental in founding the Statistical Section of the British Association for the Indice de quetelet of Science at Cambridge inand within a year, the Statistical Society of London, predecessor of the present Royal Statistical Society.
With the increased fame achieved by his book and as a tireless promoter of accurate statistical data collection based on standard methods and definitions, Quetelet conceived, organized, hosted and presided over the First International Statistical Congress ISC in Brussels, in Quetelet's studies are said to have influenced the thinking of Charles Darwin, who was familiar with his works. But it is Darwin's cousin, Francis Galton —who fully recognized and cited extensively the contributions of Quetelet and pursued the application of the bell-shaped curve with even greater enthusiasm.
Interestingly, the person to question the validity of the bell-shaped curve, Karl Pearson — Indice de quetelet, was in fact the Galton Professor of Eugenics at the University College of London [ 131524 ].
The life and work of Quetelet are closely related to Indice de quetelet events of society in the first half of the 19th century [ 11 ]. The French Revolution and Napoleonic wars had shaken the roots of Europe, and after the Congress of Vienna Indice de queteleta new Europe began to take shape.
The social and economic structure of Europe was undergoing dramatic changes due to industrialization, mechanization and urban migrations. It was a time of burgeoning research in several fields go here knowledge, the establishment and growth of Indice de quetelet academies, click here the foundation of higher institutions of research [ Indice de quetelet ].
This was the fertile environment that Indice de quetelet the creative mind and scientific entrepreneurial spirit of Quetelet. From the perspective of nephrology, it was also the time that Richard Bright —a contemporary of Quetelet, began to Indice de quetelet his reports on proteinuria and kidney disease [ 26 ].
A polymath equally versed in the arts and sciences and a polyglot in addition to his native French, fluent in English, Indice de quetelet, Italian, German and Latin, in which he defended his doctoral thesisQuetelet was a dogged investigator, a prodigious author, a dauntless undertaker with infectious enthusiasm and abundant ambition and a talented organizer who saw opportunity in everything he encountered and capitalized on it.
This article highlights his contributions to the Indice de quetelet study of the physical and social phenomena of man. His actual contributions were much more varied. He was equally productive in astronomy and meteorology, though less famous for them [ 9 Indice de quetelet, 1015 ].
As he grew older, he realized that the Indice de quetelet way to originate new endeavors was to tell the history of earlier times, and this probably induced him to devote part Indice de quetelet his last years to recounting the history of the development of mathematics, statistics, and the sciences in Belgium [ 9 this web page. In recognition of his contributions to the sciences in Belgium and to the Royal Academy, a statue of Quetelet was commissioned and paid for by public subscriptions.
He is shown sitting with his left hand holding a globe reflecting his own international interests and the global influence of his studies, recounted in this article Indice de quetelet they pertain to obesity. It shows him holding a globe in his left hand to reflect his international interests Indice de quetelet the worldwide impact of his studies. Photograph courtesy of Indice de quetelet. The body mass index BMI is based on the original concept that body weight increases as a function of height squared.
As an indicator "Indice de quetelet" obesity the modern BMI assumption postulates that adiposity also increases as a function of height in states of positive energy balance. To evaluate the BMI concept across different adiposity magnitudes, in both children and adults. We studied Indice de quetelet who underwent anthropometric evaluation: children and adults.
Tetrapolar bioimpedance analysis was used to assess body fat and lean mass. Body weight increases as a function of height squared. However, adiposity progressively increases as a function of height only in Indice de quetelet. BMI is not an ideal indicator of obesity in adults since it is significantly influenced by the lean mass, even in obese individuals.
Obesity is pathophysiologically defined as excessive adiposity. Indice de quetelet cross-sectional analysis was performed on two independent databases of anthropometric measures and body composition estimations by tetrapolar bioimpedance analysis BIA of adults and children.
The present study was approved by the internal Ethics Committee of our institution, according with the Declaration of Helsinki. Informed consent was obtained from all participants or their parents. The convenience sampling method was used to collect information on both children and adults.
The evaluations of children were carried out in the urban population of Magdalena de Kino Son. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from the parents regarding demography, relevant antecedents and current alimentary and exercise habits. The questionnaire was administered as an interview performed by trained personnel. Complete information on demographics and body composition was available for children.
For anthropometrics, children were measured in light Indice de quetelet wear after they had emptied their bladders. Height was measured to the nearest 0.
Waist here hip circumferences cm were measured with an anthropometric tape. Waist circumference was measured at the minimum perimeter between the iliac crest and the rib cage, below the sternum. The hip measurement was taken at the maximum posterior protrusion of the Indice de quetelet, around the greater trochanter.
Children were asked to stand barefoot and without metals on an insulating floor and electrodes were Indice de quetelet in the four limbs, as corresponded. Gender and height details were entered manually into the electronic system via a keyboard. These subjects were studied with Indice de quetelet computerized multi-frequency tetrapolar 8-point tactile Indice de quetelet BIA system Inbody ; analyzing software: Inbody 3.
They were asked to remove their clothes, except underwear Indice de quetelet cotton-made, with no metal or synthetic textilesand they were provided with a disposable gown for use during body composition analysis. Hands and soles were cleaned up and impregnated using disposable cloths soaked with electrolyte conductive solution. The subjects were Indice de quetelet to stand barefoot Indice de quetelet the feet electrodes, and they grasped the upper limbs electrodes mounted on built-in handles.
The measurement was performed in a dry and warm weather. Body weight recorded by the BIA analyzer was used for the statistical analysis; other anthropometric variables were estimated by direct measurement with stadiometer or flexible metric rulers following standard Indice de quetelet. Body fat and lean content were estimated using the standard built-in prediction algorithms for adults. Chi-square test was used to assess nominal variables in bivariate analysis. To compare quantitative variables, Student's t test was performed for parametric i.
Pearson's rho was used to evaluate bivariate correlation between continuous distributions. The determination coefficient was calculated as rho squared. All p values reported are two-sided. SPSS v For both children and adults all the anthropometric variables followed a normal distribution, except for waist circumference.
On the other hand, total body weight increased progressively with higher height squared values in adults Fig. Main characteristics of adults and children included in the study. However, body fat does not necessarily increase as a function of height squared in adults; this fact challenges the Indice de quetelet of BMI as a pragmatic Indice de quetelet of obesity. Nonetheless, since mean body fat content is higher among individuals with a high BMI compared with lighter subjects, this index has been consistently found to be a predictor of vascular events and mortality at a population level with a large number of observations.
It is possible that Indice de quetelet amount of lean and fat masses, but not necessarily obesity, are required to cope with energy demands that ensue after chronic atherothrombotic disease or link failure. The obesity paradox has been described for myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure and renal insufficiency, among other diseases.
Several studies have Indice de quetelet BMI as a reliable index of Indice de quetelet adiposity, and as a consequence, as a pragmatic definition of obesity. Indice de quetelet main limitations of this study are the relatively small sample size and the imprecise measurements of body fat and lean mass content obtained with BIA. The method used to measure waist circumference is not the conventionally accepted by Indice de quetelet WHO; thus, although we do not expect this to significantly affect our results, they must be interpreted with caution.
Hence, the present report click the following article be considered as hypothesis generating, with the simple message that there is a need for better body composition measurements that can be used for a modern redefinition of obesity, one Indice de quetelet can be easily and consistently applied both to large populations and at the single patient level.
In conclusion, total body weight and adiposity progressively increase as a function of height squared in children. On the other hand, total body weight in adults does increase as a function of height squared, but body adiposity does not.
Especially for adults, we are in need of a modern index of adiposity. No sources of funding are declared for this study. All authors report no competing conflicts of interest. ISSN: Descargar PDF. Erwin Chiquete Indice de quetelet ,?? Autor para correspondencia. Table 1. Indice de quetelet 2. Table 3. Background The body mass index BMI is based on the original concept that body weight increases as a function of height squared.
As an indicator of obesity the modern BMI assumption postulates that adiposity also increases as a function of height in states of positive energy balance. Objective To evaluate the BMI concept across different adiposity magnitudes, in both children and adults.
Methods Source studied individuals who underwent anthropometric evaluation: children and adults. Tetrapolar bioimpedance analysis Indice de quetelet used to assess body fat and lean mass.
Conclusions Body weight increases as a function Indice de quetelet height squared. BMI is not an ideal indicator of obesity in Indice de quetelet since it is significantly influenced by the lean mass, even in obese individuals. Palabras clave:. Texto completo. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was performed on two independent databases of anthropometric measures and body composition estimations by tetrapolar bioimpedance analysis BIA of adults Indice de quetelet children. Study population The evaluations of children were carried out in Indice de quetelet urban population of Magdalena de Kino Son.
Body fat and lean content were estimated using the standard built-in prediction algorithms for Indice de quetelet. Statistical analysis Chi-square test was used to assess nominal Indice de quetelet in bivariate analysis. Main characteristics of adults and children included in the study.
Figure 1. Figure 2. Science, 60pp. Adolphe Quetelet — — the average man and indices of obesity. Nephrol Dial Transplant, 23pp. Jelliffe, E. Underappreciated Indice de quetelet. Am J Clin Nutr, 32pp. Billewicz, W. Kemsley, A. Br J Prev Soc Med, 16pp. Khosla, C. Indices of obesity derived from body weight and height. Br J Prev Soc Med, 21pp. Evans, I. Indices of obesity derived from height and weight in two Polynesian populations.
Br J Prev Soc Med, 23pp. Florey Cdu. The use and interpretation of ponderal index and other weight—height ratios in epidemiological studies. J Chronic Dis, 23pp. Keys, F. Fidanza, M. Karvonen, Indice de quetelet. Kimura, H. J Chronic Dis, 25pp.